Introduction to the Mathematics of Evolution

 

Chapter 18

 

Patterns of Intelligence

 

 

"He who joyfully marches to music in rank and file has already earned my contempt. He has been given a large brain by mistake, since for him the spinal cord would fully suffice."

Albert Einstein, Nobel Prize, 1921 in Physics

 

 

Introduction

 

The key claim, meaning the prime assumption, of neo-Darwinism is that random mutations of nucleotides created new genetic information and intelligence. This had to have happened before natural selection came into play because natural selection can only act on existing species, not on species under construction. The term "selection" is used in "natural selection" because it "selects" among existing species.

 

Because randomness had to create the patterns of DNA or RNA for the "first living cell," and because randomness had to create the patterns of mutations which led to new species (these are the first two keys of Neo-Darwinism), essentially the prime assumption of evolution is that patterns of randomness can create highly sophisticated patterns of intelligence and information; because DNA has both highly sophisticated intelligence and information coded among its nucleotides.

 

This chapter will ask the question: "Can patterns of randomness create patterns of massively sophisticated information and intelligence?"

 

The answer turns out to be 'no', as will now be seen.

 

This chapter first describes this issue descriptively, then it describes it visually and finally it describes it statistically.

 

 

A Computer Program

 

First, let us look at a computer program. This is a program I wrote so I could have an alarm clock on my computer. While I wrote the program, actually most of the program was written by Microsoft Corporation programmers. They essentially wrote a lot of subroutines which did various things; then I came along and organized their library of subroutines into an alarm clock program.

 

The program was actually "compiled" as bits of information, meaning a long string of '0's and '1's. Analyzing '0's and '1's is kind of boring so I grouped each 8 consecutive '0's and '1's into a "byte" and analyzed the program as a set of "bytes."

 

A "byte" is really nothing but eight consecutive '0's and '1's. For example, these are "bytes" (i.e. permutations of 8 bits):

 

00000000

01010100

11011110

10101011

00001100

11111101

and so on.

 

After breaking down the program (which was a long string of '0's and '1's whereby I took each 8 consecutive bits and converted the 8 bits into one byte), I then took each byte and counted how many times this byte occurred in the listing of the program. In other words, I took the compiled binary (i.e. 0s and 1s) listing of the program; then took each 8 consecutive bits and counted how many times each permutation of 8 bits (i.e. each byte) occurred. This counting process generates what is called a "histogram."

 

A "histogram" simply "counts" how many times a particular permutation occurs, in this instance.

 

The intent was to count how many times each byte (i.e. permutation of 8 'bits') occurred and then analyze these counts.

 

In this table is a listing of how many times each byte occurred in the compiled binary listing of the alarm clock program.

 

Alarm Clock Program Histogram

Table 1:

 

0 [.] = 42114 (i.e. consecutive bits: 00000000)

1 [] = 2208 (i.e. consecutive bits: 00000001)

2 [[1]] = 2442 (i.e. consecutive bits: 00000010)

3 [.] = 322 (i.e. consecutive bits: 00000011)

4 [.] = 1848 (i.e. consecutive bits: 00000100)

5 [] = 377 and so on.

6 [] = 634

7 [] = 486

8 [] = 539

9 [.] = 174

10 [.] = 2045

11 [.] = 409

12 [.] = 295

13 [.] = 170

14 [.] = 243

15 [] = 113

16 [] = 200

17 [] = 416

18 [] = 263

19 [] = 338

20 [] = 171

21 [] = 179

22 [] = 491

23 [] = 336

24 [] = 246

25 [] = 244

26 [] = 183

27 [] = 158

28 [] = 172

29 [] = 171

30 [‑] = 232

31 [] = 500

32 [ ] = 1296

33 [!] = 59

34 ["] = 163

35 [#] = 52

36 [$] = 93

37 [%] = 185

38 [&] = 175

39 ['] = 69

40 [(] = 509

41 [)] = 79

42 [*] = 280

43 [+] = 128

44 [,] = 648

45 [-] = 88

46 [.] = 1407

47 [/] = 41

48 [0] = 1354

49 [1] = 570

50 [2] = 159

51 [3] = 321

52 [4] = 303

53 [5] = 672

54 [6] = 267

55 [7] = 411

56 [8] = 304

57 [9] = 412

58 [:] = 118

59 [;] = 65

60 [<] = 118

61 [=] = 600

62 [>] = 78

63 [?] = 41

64 [@] = 121

65 [A] = 512

66 [B] = 189

67 [C] = 524

68 [D] = 476

69 [E] = 117

70 [F] = 105

71 [G] = 83

72 [H] = 138

73 [I] = 130

74 [J] = 27

75 [K] = 223

76 [L] = 339

77 [M] = 481

78 [N] = 74

79 [O] = 142

80 [P] = 462

81 [Q] = 53

82 [R] = 166

83 [S] = 695

84 [T] = 340

85 [U] = 40

86 [V] = 287

87 [W] = 59

88 [X] = 89

89 [Y] = 72

90 [Z] = 72

91 [[] = 42

92 [\] = 46

93 []] = 36

94 [^] = 31

95 [_] = 592

96 [`] = 49

97 [a] = 1537

98 [b] = 981

99 [c] = 750

100 [d] = 743

101 [e] = 4301

102 [f] = 390

103 [g] = 224

104 [h] = 130

105 [i] = 1407

106 [j] = 57

107 [k] = 391

108 [l] = 1606

109 [m] = 1252

110 [n] = 1280

111 [o] = 2938

112 [p] = 550

113 [q] = 36

114 [r] = 2035

115 [s] = 1768

116 [t] = 2749

117 [u] = 1617

118 [v] = 352

119 [w] = 156

120 [x] = 347

121 [y] = 797

122 [z] = 64

123 [{] = 1240

124 [|] = 49

125 [}] = 226

126 [~] = 19

127 [] = 26

128 [] = 153

129 [] = 50

130 [] = 13

131 [] = 20

132 [] = 34

133 [] = 17

134 [] = 67

135 [] = 22

136 [] = 54

137 [] = 15

138 [] = 15

139 [] = 18

140 [] = 36

141 [] = 35

142 [Ž] = 36

143 [] = 31

144 [] = 50

145 [] = 22

146 [] = 17

147 [] = 31

148 [] = 27

149 [] = 19

150 [] = 31

151 [] = 21

152 [] = 36

153 [] = 20

154 [] = 55

155 [] = 17

156 [] = 19

157 [] = 10

158 [ž] = 24

159 [] = 10

160 [ ] = 34

161 [] = 40

162 [] = 44

163 [] = 9

164 [] = 24

165 [] = 9

166 [] = 21

167 [] = 7

168 [] = 30

169 [] = 16

170 [] = 13

171 [] = 7

172 [] = 8

173 [] = 15

174 [] = 8

175 [] = 9

176 [] = 27

177 [] = 14

178 [] = 8

179 [] = 10

180 [] = 13

181 [] = 9

182 [] = 14

183 [] = 7

184 [] = 26

185 [] = 7

186 [] = 13

187 [] = 9

188 [] = 21

189 [] = 10

190 [] = 11

191 [] = 14

192 [] = 43

193 [] = 12

194 [] = 8

195 [] = 9

196 [] = 18

197 [] = 21

198 [] = 27

199 [] = 6

200 [] = 15

201 [] = 9

202 [] = 24

203 [] = 10

204 [] = 37

205 [] = 13

206 [] = 12

207 [] = 10

208 [] = 9

209 [] = 61

210 [] = 17

211 [] = 14

212 [] = 12

213 [] = 7

214 [] = 14

215 [] = 14

216 [] = 20

217 [] = 13

218 [] = 9

219 [] = 13

220 [] = 28

221 [] = 12

222 [] = 30

223 [] = 10

224 [] = 20

225 [] = 13

226 [] = 14

227 [] = 9

228 [] = 17

229 [] = 5

230 [] = 14

231 [] = 8

232 [] = 29

233 [] = 28

234 [] = 5

235 [] = 28

236 [] = 12

237 [] = 10

238 [] = 14

239 [] = 11

240 [] = 32

241 [] = 15

242 [] = 12

243 [] = 2

244 [] = 29

245 [] = 6

246 [] = 9

247 [] = 19

248 [] = 19

249 [] = 5

250 [] = 8

251 [] = 10

252 [] = 11

253 [] = 14

254 [] = 58

255 [] = 1403

 

Total = 110592 bytes

 

Note in the above chart that the minimum number of times a single byte was found was 2. This happened once for byte 243.

 

The maximum number of times a byte was found was 42,114, for byte 0. The second highest was 4,301, for byte 101.

 

Note also the large number of times that bytes 97 through 128 were found!! Compare this to the number of times bytes 163 through 254 were found (with a few exceptions).

 

The above chart is a "histogram," meaning a chart which shows the frequency of how many times a particular pattern of 8 'bits' exists in the program.

 

The computer program, in total, had 110,592 bytes.

 

 

Using A Random Number Generator

 

I then used the random number generator to generate 110,592 random "bytes." The next chart is this histogram:

 

Alarm Clock Histogram Generated By Random Number Generator

Table 2:

 

0 [.] = 451

1 [] = 407

2 [[1]] = 402

3 [.] = 442

4 [.] = 428

5 [] = 426

6 [] = 440

7 [] = 444

8 [] = 458

9 [.] = 434

10 [.] = 452

11 [.] = 437

12 [.] = 429

13 [.] = 469

14 [.] = 415

15 [] = 466

16 [] = 430

17 [] = 469

18 [] = 431

19 [] = 460

20 [] = 394

21 [] = 437

22 [] = 427

23 [] = 453

24 [] = 428

25 [] = 426

26 [] = 473

27 [] = 403

28 [] = 414

29 [] = 413

30 [‑] = 445

31 [] = 460

32 [ ] = 419

33 [!] = 450

34 ["] = 438

35 [#] = 449

36 [$] = 434

37 [%] = 395

38 [&] = 440

39 ['] = 404

40 [(] = 462

41 [)] = 461

42 [*] = 429

43 [+] = 405

44 [,] = 445

45 [-] = 480

46 [.] = 473

47 [/] = 443

48 [0] = 444

49 [1] = 410

50 [2] = 457

51 [3] = 452

52 [4] = 432

53 [5] = 458

54 [6] = 470

55 [7] = 438

56 [8] = 432

57 [9] = 424

58 [:] = 442

59 [;] = 403

60 [<] = 449

61 [=] = 420

62 [>] = 447

63 [?] = 459

64 [@] = 486

65 [A] = 481

66 [B] = 413

67 [C] = 413

68 [D] = 417

69 [E] = 450

70 [F] = 412

71 [G] = 427

72 [H] = 406

73 [I] = 402

74 [J] = 460

75 [K] = 431

76 [L] = 435

77 [M] = 416

78 [N] = 439

79 [O] = 484

80 [P] = 432

81 [Q] = 407

82 [R] = 402

83 [S] = 416

84 [T] = 435

85 [U] = 411

86 [V] = 440

87 [W] = 404

88 [X] = 421

89 [Y] = 402

90 [Z] = 433

91 [[] = 394

92 [\] = 428

93 []] = 432

94 [^] = 447

95 [_] = 448

96 [`] = 444

97 [a] = 430

98 [b] = 415

99 [c] = 413

100 [d] = 467

101 [e] = 458

102 [f] = 419

103 [g] = 409

104 [h] = 449

105 [i] = 413

106 [j] = 422

107 [k] = 462

108 [l] = 439

109 [m] = 428

110 [n] = 420

111 [o] = 413

112 [p] = 437

113 [q] = 418

114 [r] = 436

115 [s] = 464

116 [t] = 448

117 [u] = 430

118 [v] = 415

119 [w] = 406

120 [x] = 409

121 [y] = 427

122 [z] = 423

123 [{] = 442

124 [|] = 443

125 [}] = 372

126 [~] = 406

127 [] = 423

128 [] = 443

129 [] = 409

130 [] = 403

131 [] = 387

132 [] = 440

133 [] = 403

134 [] = 438

135 [] = 454

136 [] = 423

137 [] = 423

138 [] = 441

139 [] = 440

140 [] = 426

141 [] = 429

142 [Ž] = 483

143 [] = 411

144 [] = 452

145 [] = 412

146 [] = 469

147 [] = 415

148 [] = 437

149 [] = 397

150 [] = 438

151 [] = 439

152 [] = 438

153 [] = 417

154 [] = 476

155 [] = 403

156 [] = 417

157 [] = 416

158 [ž] = 441

159 [] = 441

160 [ ] = 458

161 [] = 463

162 [] = 452

163 [] = 450

164 [] = 450

165 [] = 418

166 [] = 451

167 [] = 432

168 [] = 427

169 [] = 422

170 [] = 418

171 [] = 403

172 [] = 444

173 [] = 466

174 [] = 382

175 [] = 404

176 [] = 429

177 [] = 393

178 [] = 449

179 [] = 437

180 [] = 436

181 [] = 425

182 [] = 441

183 [] = 459

184 [] = 387

185 [] = 440

186 [] = 481

187 [] = 436

188 [] = 439

189 [] = 430

190 [] = 434

191 [] = 421

192 [] = 450

193 [] = 430

194 [] = 401

195 [] = 430

196 [] = 445

197 [] = 437

198 [] = 406

199 [] = 423

200 [] = 458

201 [] = 435

202 [] = 423

203 [] = 453

204 [] = 420

205 [] = 407

206 [] = 417

207 [] = 443

208 [] = 426

209 [] = 451

210 [] = 434

211 [] = 404

212 [] = 423

213 [] = 432

214 [] = 432

215 [] = 441

216 [] = 421

217 [] = 446

218 [] = 459

219 [] = 440

220 [] = 445

221 [] = 446

222 [] = 443

223 [] = 454

224 [] = 444

225 [] = 408

226 [] = 420

227 [] = 406

228 [] = 417

229 [] = 433

230 [] = 424

231 [] = 417

232 [] = 421

233 [] = 434

234 [] = 418

235 [] = 461

236 [] = 424

237 [] = 403

238 [] = 409

239 [] = 428

240 [] = 462

241 [] = 463

242 [] = 419

243 [] = 442

244 [] = 389

245 [] = 405

246 [] = 453

247 [] = 413

248 [] = 425

249 [] = 437

250 [] = 411

251 [] = 413

252 [] = 421

253 [] = 430

254 [] = 456

255 [] = 422

 

Total = 110592

 

Whereas the histogram range for an actual intelligently designed computer program ranged from 2 to 42,114 (or "to 4,301" if you don't count 0), the range for the randomly generated histogram was 372 (for byte 125) to 486 (for byte 64).

 

The "range" or "gap" for an intelligently designed computer program was at least 4,299 (i.e. 4,301 - 2), whereas the "gap" for a randomly designed computer program (which obviously would not have done anything useful) was 114 (i.e. 486 - 372). The size of the "gap" of the randomly generated program was only 2.65% of the range or "gap" of the intelligently generated program!!

 

Random number generators; which are essentially what random mutations of nucleotides are represented by; do not have nearly the variety of counts as a truly intelligent set of bits. The wide variety of bits of an intelligent program is a side-effect of intelligence.

 

The point is that in order to create intelligence you need a wide range in values in the histogram, but a random number generator cannot create that wide range of values.

 

There is no randomness in intelligence and there is no intelligence in randomness!!

 

We could have done the same thing with a book. A book written in the English language would have very few 'z' or 'q' or 'j' characters. Yet, if we randomly generated the letters in the book, one out of 26 of the letters would be a 'z' or a 'q' or a 'j'.

 

If we "weighted" or "biased" the selection of letters, to the same proportion as in a real book; we would get the right weighting, but not the right distribution of groups of letters. It would be gibberish, as has already been seen in a prior chapter.

 

The point to this exercise is this question: "Could we ever randomly generate the alarm clock program using a random number generator?" The answer is 'no', at least not in the time frame of a trillion years.

 

Intelligence has patterns which are vastly different than the patterns of randomness. You don't get intelligence from randomness.

 

Randomness creates very consistent patterns, which is exactly the wrong thing to do if you are trying to generate intelligence or information.

 

But intelligence creates a high variety of patterns. If you plotted the above numbers for intelligence on a graph; the intelligence would create a very active chart which would have a wide range of highs and lows.

 

On the other hand, you would see a very flat and boring pattern generated by the random numbers. From a distance the pattern would look like a straight line.

 

 

The Photograph

 

Just for fun, I did a similar thing with a photograph used commonly by Microsoft. This doesn't really have any intelligence to it, but it certainly was not a photograph generated by a random number generator.

 

Using the "bliss.bmp" file, and checking out its "intelligence," I got a minimum value of 324 and a maximum value of 26,792. That is a range or gap of 26,468.

 

The random number generator generated a minimum of 5,379 and a maximum of 5,848. The bliss.bmp file is 1,440,054 bytes long so more random numbers had to be generated. It generated a gap of 469. The ratio of the two gaps, randomness to intelligence (i.e. non-random), was: 1.77%.

 

Again, we see a vast difference in the patterns. Could a random number generator ever generate the "bliss.bmp" file? No.

 

In fact, I wrote a computer program to generate random images. Never, at any time did any small section of any of the images ever resemble an identifiable object. Not even a small object in a small section of the screen could be identified.

 

 

What About DNA?

 

Analyzing DNA should yield the same kind of results. In fact, I took a portion of chromosome 5 and analyzed it.

 

Chromosome 5 has about 1,643 genes in it, which is about 5.1% of all the genes in the entire DNA. It also has about 198 million base pairs, which is about 6.1% of the entire human genome (including the X and Y chromosomes).

 

I analyzed a section of 41,199,371 consecutive nucleotides, which is about 21% of the nucleotides in chromosome 5.

 

If you want to see this sequence, do the following:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.org

On left side click: Genomic Biology

In middle of page click: Homo sapiens (human)

Then click: chromosome number: 5

On right side of page click: "Download/View Sequence/Evidence"

Select the item nearest 41.2 million nucleotides.

 

Here is their breakdown of the actual nucleotides in this segment.

 

Total = 41,199,371

 

A = 12,664,928

C = 7,942,096

G = 7,927,395

T = 12,664,952

 

In order to examine "bytes," I took each four consecutive nucleotides and compressed them into one byte. This meant the number of "bytes" I examined was 1/4th the number of nucleotides because each four consecutive nucleotides (i.e. A, C, G, T) were compressed into one byte.

 

To make this conversion I used the following chart:

A converted to bits: 00, by definition

C converted to bits: 01, by definition

G converted to bits: 10, by definition

T converted to bits: 11, by defintion

 

Here is an example of how four consecutive nucleotides were converted into a single byte. Let us take the sequence AGTC.

 

The A would convert to 00 (i.e. the first two bits in the byte),

The G would convert to 10 (i.e. the second two bits in the byte),

The T would convert to 11 (i.e. the third two bits in the byte),

The C would convert to 01 (i.e. the fourth two bits in the byte).

 

Thus, the four nucleotides would convert to: 00 10 11 01.

 

The 00101101 is a binary number, meaning a base 2 number. Starting with the far left digit, converting binary to decimal uses this conversion:

Far left bit is multiplied by 128 (x 0)

Next bit is multiplied by 64 (x 0)

Next bit is multiplied by 32 (x 1)

Next bit is multiplied by 16 (x 0)

Next bit is multiplied by 8 (x 1)

Next bit is multiplied by 4 (x 1)

Next bit is multiplied by 2 (x 0)

Far right bit is multiplied by 1 (x 1)

 

This is how it is done:

(00-10-11-01 base 2 equals 45 in base 10):

 

The first two bits came from the A

0 x 128 = 0 (the far left bit)

0 x 64 = 0 (the second bit from the left)

 

The second pair of bits came from the G

1 x 32 = 32 (the third bit)

0 x 16 = 0 (the fourth bit)

 

The third pair of bits came from the T

1 x 8 = 8 (the fifth bit)

1 x 4 = 4 (the sixth bit)

 

The fourth pair of bits came from the C

0 x 2 = 0 (the seventh bit)

1 x 1 = 1 (the eighth bit)

 

Thus, 00-10-11-01 binary is equal to:

0 + 0 + 32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 45 base 10, meaning decimal.

 

Thus, the sequence AGTC would convert to byte 45.

 

Here is the histogram of the actual "bytes" of the chromosome 5 sequence of nucleotides; where each "byte" represents 4 consecutive nucleotides of real human DNA compressed into one "byte":

 

Histogram of Actual Human DNA (chromosome 5)

Table 3:

 

Column (A) Byte #

Column (B) Byte Equal To These Four Nucleotides

Column (C) Frequency of this Sequence of Four Nucleotides (i.e. frequency of each byte)

 

(A) (B) (C)

 

0 [AAAA] 171795

1 [AAAC] 61526

2 [AAAG] 79756

3 [AAAT] 116638

4 [AACA] 67711

5 [AACC] 32325

6 [AACG] 5389

7 [AACT] 51658

8 [AAGA] 74007

9 [AAGC] 37807

10 [AAGG] 46434

11 [AAGT] 53799

12 [AATA] 87920

13 [AATC] 44581

14 [AATG] 66135

15 [AATT] 86968

16 [ACAA] 61864

17 [ACAC] 39693

18 [ACAG] 52031

19 [ACAT] 59606

20 [ACCA] 43027

21 [ACCC] 26463

22 [ACCG] 3909

23 [ACCT] 38724

24 [ACGA] 4852

25 [ACGC] 4302

26 [ACGG] 4807

27 [ACGT] 6860

28 [ACTA] 37209

29 [ACTC] 34159

30 [ACTG] 45136

31 [ACTT] 53514

32 [AGAA] 86015

33 [AGAC] 37158

34 [AGAG] 55425

35 [AGAT] 52914

36 [AGCA] 49296

37 [AGCC] 35622

38 [AGCG] 4511

39 [AGCT] 43890

40 [AGGA] 54327

41 [AGGC] 38471

42 [AGGG] 35063

43 [AGGT] 38208

44 [AGTA] 42704

45 [AGTC] 30407

46 [AGTG] 45253

47 [AGTT] 52034

48 [ATAA] 78825

49 [ATAC] 38726

50 [ATAG] 41093

51 [ATAT] 84098

52 [ATCA] 51202

53 [ATCC] 32900

54 [ATCG] 4464

55 [ATCT] 52936

56 [ATGA] 57129

57 [ATGC] 35173

58 [ATGG] 44685

59 [ATGT] 59339

60 [ATTA] 69003

61 [ATTC] 51404

62 [ATTG] 47417

63 [ATTT] 117256

64 [CAAA] 79363

65 [CAAC] 32127

66 [CAAG] 42815

67 [CAAT] 47654

68 [CACA] 55620

69 [CACC] 33151

70 [CACG] 7179

71 [CACT] 45928

72 [CAGA] 56564

73 [CAGC] 41329

74 [CAGG] 48062

75 [CAGT] 45195

76 [CATA] 46917

77 [CATC] 35989

78 [CATG] 48113

79 [CATT] 65381

80 [CCAA] 45500

81 [CCAC] 35934

82 [CCAG] 48737

83 [CCAT] 44965

84 [CCCA] 46621

85 [CCCC] 25223

86 [CCCG] 6354

87 [CCCT] 35270

88 [CCGA] 4555

89 [CCGC] 4965

90 [CCGG] 5318

91 [CCGT] 4858

92 [CCTA] 30469

93 [CCTC] 41512

94 [CCTG] 48098

95 [CCTT] 47006

96 [CGAA] 4840

97 [CGAC] 2618

98 [CGAG] 6200

99 [CGAT] 4553

100 [CGCA] 4452

101 [CGCC] 6407

102 [CGCG] 1565

103 [CGCT] 4517

104 [CGGA] 4428

105 [CGGC] 4852

106 [CGGG] 6324

107 [CGGT] 3933

108 [CGTA] 4245

109 [CGTC] 4037

110 [CGTG] 7351

111 [CGTT] 5433

112 [CTAA] 43131

113 [CTAC] 27535

114 [CTAG] 29209

115 [CTAT] 41542

116 [CTCA] 52774

117 [CTCC] 42889

118 [CTCG] 6080

119 [CTCT] 55831

120 [CTGA] 50215

121 [CTGC] 39849

122 [CTGG] 48277

123 [CTGT] 52140

124 [CTTA] 41672

125 [CTTC] 47446

126 [CTTG] 42909

127 [CTTT] 79790

128 [GAAA] 82388

129 [GAAC] 30267

130 [GAAG] 47142

131 [GAAT] 51502

132 [GACA] 37677

133 [GACC] 19607

134 [GACG] 3864

135 [GACT] 30747

136 [GAGA] 54787

137 [GAGC] 26835

138 [GAGG] 41002

139 [GAGT] 33589

140 [GATA] 36672

141 [GATC] 24331

142 [GATG] 35921

143 [GATT] 44264

144 [GCAA] 39578

145 [GCAC] 25373

146 [GCAG] 39433

147 [GCAT] 34728

148 [GCCA] 36945

149 [GCCC] 22184

150 [GCCG] 4720

151 [GCCT] 38291

152 [GCGA] 3996

153 [GCGC] 4097

154 [GCGG] 4920

155 [GCGT] 4322

156 [GCTA] 27903

157 [GCTC] 26921

158 [GCTG] 41554

159 [GCTT] 37492

160 [GGAA] 51638

161 [GGAC] 20083

162 [GGAG] 42961

163 [GGAT] 33060

164 [GGCA] 37084

165 [GGCC] 23339

166 [GGCG] 6415

167 [GGCT] 35520

168 [GGGA] 38931

169 [GGGC] 22252

170 [GGGG] 25116

171 [GGGT] 26461

172 [GGTA] 26299

173 [GGTC] 19789

174 [GGTG] 33347

175 [GGTT] 32735

176 [GTAA] 39612

177 [GTAC] 19306

178 [GTAG] 28035

179 [GTAT] 38647

180 [GTCA] 31986

181 [GTCC] 20194

182 [GTCG] 2612

183 [GTCT] 37235

184 [GTGA] 41003

185 [GTGC] 25002

186 [GTGG] 36220

187 [GTGT] 39178

188 [GTTA] 33122

189 [GTTC] 30685

190 [GTTG] 32094

191 [GTTT] 61630

192 [TAAA] 96295

193 [TAAC] 32788

194 [TAAG] 41940

195 [TAAT] 68926

196 [TACA] 52499

197 [TACC] 26011

198 [TACG] 4285

199 [TACT] 42863

200 [TAGA] 46015

201 [TAGC] 27648

202 [TAGG] 30346

203 [TAGT] 37514

204 [TATA] 71110

205 [TATC] 36991

206 [TATG] 46579

207 [TATT] 88109

208 [TCAA] 55867

209 [TCAC] 40668

210 [TCAG] 50537

211 [TCAT] 56858

212 [TCCA] 49110

213 [TCCC] 39054

214 [TCCG] 4520

215 [TCCT] 54738

216 [TCGA] 4493

217 [TCGC] 4023

218 [TCGG] 4621

219 [TCGT] 5058

220 [TCTA] 46049

221 [TCTC] 55454

222 [TCTG] 56439

223 [TCTT] 74027

224 [TGAA] 68470

225 [TGAC] 31575

226 [TGAG] 52522

227 [TGAT] 50570

228 [TGCA] 48917

229 [TGCC] 37185

230 [TGCG] 4415

231 [TGCT] 49589

232 [TGGA] 48758

233 [TGGC] 36807

234 [TGGG] 46031

235 [TGGT] 42586

236 [TGTA] 52586

237 [TGTC] 37682

238 [TGTG] 55631

239 [TGTT] 67303

240 [TTAA] 78181

241 [TTAC] 39932

242 [TTAG] 42944

243 [TTAT] 78553

244 [TTCA] 69125

245 [TTCC] 51528

246 [TTCG] 4914

247 [TTCT] 85861

248 [TTGA] 55806

249 [TTGC] 39335

250 [TTGG] 45168

251 [TTGT] 61447

252 [TTTA] 95607

253 [TTTC] 82318

254 [TTTG] 80201

255 [TTTT] 170849

 

Total = 10,299,843

 

Note that the number of bytes is about 1/4th the number of nucleotides.

 

Note that the minimum was 1,565 in byte 102. The maximum was 171,795 in byte 0. Byte 0 represented four consecutive 'A' nucleotides. You might remember that byte 0 also had the highest byte count in the computer program. The sequence TTTT (i.e. 255) had a 170,840 count, not far behind AAAA.

 

The counts for AAAA, CCCC, GGGG and TTTT are somewhat consistent with the overall proportion of these nucleotides. Remember from above:

 

A = 12,664,928 (30.74%)

C = 7,942,096 (19.28%)

G = 7,927,395 (19.24%)

T = 12,664,952 (30.74%)

 

Now look at the histogram for these sequences:

 

AAAA = 171,795 (43.72%)

CCCC = 25,223 ( 6.42%)

GGGG = 25,116 ( 6.39%)

TTTT = 170,840 (43.47%)

 

The important number for our purposes was the gap 170,230

(i.e. 171,795 ‑ 1,565).

 

Now let us look at the randomly generated bytes of the same total count:

 

Randomly Generated DNA

Table 4:

 

0 [.] = 40123

1 [_] = 40154

2 [_] = 39966

3 [.] = 40361

4 [.] = 40451

5 [_] = 40384

6 [_] = 39995

7 [_] = 40119

8 [_] = 40125

9 [.] = 40242

10 [.] = 39867

11 [.] = 40166

12 [.] = 40094

13 [.] = 40073

14 [_] = 40120

15 [_] = 40387

16 [_] = 39842

17 [_] = 40323

18 [_] = 40185

19 [_] = 40159

20 [_] = 40473

21 [_] = 40144

22 [_] = 40219

23 [_] = 40145

24 [_] = 40188

25 [_] = 39993

26 [_] = 40405

27 [_] = 40106

28 [_] = 40093

29 [_] = 40161

30 [_] = 40317

31 [_] = 40233

32 [ ] = 40291

33 [!] = 40280

34 ["] = 40134

35 [#] = 40542

36 [$] = 39953

37 [%] = 40225

38 [&] = 40130

39 ['] = 40541

40 [(] = 40223

41 [)] = 40330

42 [*] = 40167

43 [+] = 40230

44 [,] = 40010

45 [-] = 40606

46 [.] = 39825

47 [/] = 40352

48 [0] = 40245

49 [1] = 40273

50 [2] = 40356

51 [3] = 40421

52 [4] = 39912

53 [5] = 39984

54 [6] = 40422

55 [7] = 40379

56 [8] = 40307

57 [9] = 40599

58 [:] = 40217

59 [;] = 40045

60 [<] = 40501

61 [=] = 40429

62 [>] = 40168

63 [?] = 39992

64 [@] = 40358

65 [A] = 40195

66 [B] = 39787

67 [C] = 40144

68 [D] = 40014

69 [E] = 40233

70 [F] = 40230

71 [G] = 40187

72 [H] = 40336

73 [I] = 40254

74 [J] = 40490

75 [K] = 40239

76 [L] = 39982

77 [M] = 40272

78 [N] = 40018

79 [O] = 39685

80 [P] = 40343

81 [Q] = 40471

82 [R] = 40088

83 [S] = 40558

84 [T] = 40156

85 [U] = 40144

86 [V] = 40004

87 [W] = 39890

88 [X] = 40209

89 [Y] = 40301

90 [Z] = 40067

91 [[] = 40401

92 [\] = 40542

93 []] = 39999

94 [^] = 40292

95 [_] = 40191

96 [`] = 40326

97 [a] = 40081

98 [b] = 40022

99 [c] = 40225

100 [d] = 40322

101 [e] = 40150

102 [f] = 40360

103 [g] = 40451

104 [h] = 40121

105 [i] = 40449

106 [j] = 40385

107 [k] = 40113

108 [l] = 40241

109 [m] = 40185

110 [n] = 40288

111 [o] = 40168

112 [p] = 40067

113 [q] = 40549

114 [r] = 40677

115 [s] = 40597

116 [t] = 40081

117 [u] = 40317

118 [v] = 40479

119 [w] = 40329

120 [x] = 40065

121 [y] = 40320

122 [z] = 39912

123 [{] = 39967

124 [|] = 40444

125 [}] = 40201

126 [~] = 40322

127 [] = 40217

128 [] = 40196

129 [] = 40138

130 [] = 40209

131 [] = 40162

132 [] = 40097

133 [] = 40568

134 [] = 39991

135 [] = 40402

136 [] = 40202

137 [] = 40143

138 [] = 40257

139 [] = 39959

140 [] = 40361

141 [] = 40741

142 [Ž] = 39965

143 [] = 40298

144 [] = 40129

145 [] = 40093

146 [] = 40299

147 [] = 40254

148 [] = 40293

149 [] = 40018

150 [] = 40651

151 [] = 40180

152 [] = 40083

153 [] = 40354

154 [] = 40066

155 [] = 40098

156 [] = 40239

157 [] = 39784

158 [ž] = 40291

159 [] = 40254

160 [ ] = 40118

161 [] = 40207

162 [] = 40374

163 [] = 40228

164 [] = 40411

165 [] = 40150

166 [] = 40581

167 [] = 40078

168 [] = 39835

169 [] = 40038

170 [] = 40773

171 [] = 40151

172 [] = 40355

173 [] = 40172

174 [] = 40184

175 [] = 40409

176 [] = 40195

177 [] = 40335

178 [] = 40103

179 [] = 39992

180 [] = 39874

181 [] = 40238

182 [] = 40434

183 [] = 40428

184 [] = 40095

185 [] = 40254

186 [] = 40406

187 [] = 39842

188 [] = 40473

189 [] = 40260

190 [] = 40013

191 [] = 40211

192 [] = 40312

193 [] = 40260

194 [] = 40131

195 [] = 40022

196 [] = 40370

197 [] = 40410

198 [] = 40597

199 [] = 40066

200 [] = 40340

201 [] = 40474

202 [] = 40109

203 [] = 40417

204 [] = 40284

205 [] = 40535

206 [] = 40252

207 [] = 40244

208 [] = 40124

209 [] = 40152

210 [] = 40151

211 [] = 40427

212 [] = 40352

213 [] = 40163

214 [] = 40401

215 [] = 40457

216 [] = 40232

217 [] = 40375

218 [] = 40282

219 [] = 40409

220 [] = 40515

221 [] = 40001

222 [] = 39875

223 [] = 40305

224 [] = 40014

225 [] = 39961

226 [] = 40488

227 [] = 40326

228 [] = 40543

229 [] = 40128

230 [] = 40146

231 [] = 40369

232 [] = 40378

233 [] = 40330

234 [] = 40218

235 [] = 40171

236 [] = 40315

237 [] = 40254

238 [] = 40264

239 [] = 40024

240 [] = 40331

241 [] = 40223

242 [] = 39898

243 [] = 40435

244 [] = 40161

245 [] = 40523

246 [] = 40195

247 [] = 40465

248 [] = 40042

249 [] = 40114

250 [] = 40312

251 [] = 40628

252 [] = 40302

253 [] = 40549

254 [] = 40245

255 [] = 40242

 

Total = 10299843

 

In this chart, the minimum was 39,685 in byte 79 and the maximum was 40,773 in byte 170. The gap was 1,088.

 

The ratio of gaps was 1,088 / 170,230 and it equaled 0.64%; which is less than 1%!!

 

I ordered all of the different byte counts in the actual DNA histogram. ONLY 4 of the 256 byte counts fell in the range of the minimum and maximum byte counts generated by the random number generator. Here they are:

 

17 [_] = 39693

121 [y] = 39849

241 [] = 39932

209 [] = 40668

 

The other 252 counts were outside the range of the random distribution!!

 

Again, we see the patterns for an intelligently designed DNA strand are vastly different than the flat patterns of a randomly generated DNA.

 

There is simply no way that randomly generated nucleotides could generate the type of intelligence and information in a real DNA strand!!

 

 

Using Predicted Values (i.e. Bias)

 

Let us review how many of the four different nucleotides were found in this segment of real human DNA:

 

A = 12,664,928 (30.74%)

C = 7,942,096 (19.28%)

G = 7,927,395 (19.24%)

T = 12,664,952 (30.74%)

 

Total = 41,199,371

 

We can predict how many times a particular sequence of 4 nucleotides (i.e. a "byte") occurs by using the above ratios or bias. For example, we could design a random number generator to make sure an 'A' is chosen 30.74% of the time and a 'C' is chosen 19.28% of the time, and so on.

 

This would be called a "biased random number generator" because it doesn't just randomly pick a nucleotide string; it picks nucleotide strings based on the percentage of times they occur in a real DNA sequence.

 

If we do this, we can compare the actual number of times a sequence or byte occurs and compare it to how many times we would predict it would occur, using our biased random number generator.

 

Here is what the chart would look like for the REAL HUMAN DNA (i.e. this chart does NOT use a random number generator, it uses real human DNA):

 

Real Human DNA Histogram Compared to Predicted Histogram

Table 5:

 

Column (A) is the byte number

Column (B) is the sequence of 4 nucleotides

Column (C) is the ACTUAL times the sequence/byte occurred

Column (D) is Column (F) minus Column (C), if positive

Column (E) is Column (C) minus Column (F), if positive

Column (F) is the number of predicted occurrences

 

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)

 

0 [AAAA] = 171795 0 79818 *91977*

1 [AAAC] = 61526 0 3848 *57678*

2 [AAAG] = 79756 0 22185 *57571*

3 [AAAT] = 116638 0 24661 *91977*

4 [AACA] = 67711 0 10033 *57678*

5 [AACC] = 32325 3845 0 *36170*

6 [AACG] = 5389 30714 0 *36103*

7 [AACT] = 51658 6020 0 *57678*

8 [AAGA] = 74007 0 16436 *57571*

9 [AAGC] = 37807 0 1704 *36103*

10 [AAGG] = 46434 0 10398 *36036*

11 [AAGT] = 53799 3773 0 *57572*

12 [AATA] = 87920 4057 0 *91977*

13 [AATC] = 44581 13097 0 *57678*

14 [AATG] = 66135 0 8563 *57572*

15 [AATT] = 86968 5009 0 *91977*

16 [ACAA] = 61864 0 4186 *57678*

17 [ACAC] = 39693 0 3523 *36170*

18 [ACAG] = 52031 0 15928 *36103*

19 [ACAT] = 59606 0 1928 *57678*

20 [ACCA] = 43027 0 6857 *36170*

21 [ACCC] = 26463 0 3781 *22682*

22 [ACCG] = 3909 18731 0 *22640*

23 [ACCT] = 38724 0 2554 *36170*

24 [ACGA] = 4852 31251 0 *36103*

25 [ACGC] = 4302 18338 0 *22640*

26 [ACGG] = 4807 17791 0 *22598*

27 [ACGT] = 6860 29243 0 *36103*

28 [ACTA] = 37209 20469 0 *57678*

29 [ACTC] = 34159 2011 0 *36170*

30 [ACTG] = 45136 0 9033 *36103*

31 [ACTT] = 53514 4164 0 *57678*

32 [AGAA] = 86015 0 28444 *57571*

33 [AGAC] = 37158 0 1055 *36103*

34 [AGAG] = 55425 0 19389 *36036*

35 [AGAT] = 52914 4658 0 *57572*

36 [AGCA] = 49296 0 13193 *36103*

37 [AGCC] = 35622 0 12982 *22640*

38 [AGCG] = 4511 18087 0 *22598*

39 [AGCT] = 43890 0 7787 *36103*

40 [AGGA] = 54327 0 18291 *36036*

41 [AGGC] = 38471 0 15873 *22598*

42 [AGGG] = 35063 0 12507 *22556*

43 [AGGT] = 38208 0 2172 *36036*

44 [AGTA] = 42704 14868 0 *57572*

45 [AGTC] = 30407 5696 0 *36103*

46 [AGTG] = 45253 0 9217 *36036*

47 [AGTT] = 52034 5538 0 *57572*

48 [ATAA] = 78825 13152 0 *91977*

49 [ATAC] = 38726 18952 0 *57678*

50 [ATAG] = 41093 16479 0 *57572*

51 [ATAT] = 84098 7879 0 *91977*

52 [ATCA] = 51202 6476 0 *57678*

53 [ATCC] = 32900 3270 0 *36170*

54 [ATCG] = 4464 31639 0 *36103*

55 [ATCT] = 52936 4742 0 *57678*

56 [ATGA] = 57129 443 0 *57572*

57 [ATGC] = 35173 930 0 *36103*

58 [ATGG] = 44685 0 8649 *36036*

59 [ATGT] = 59339 0 1767 *57572*

60 [ATTA] = 69003 22974 0 *91977*

61 [ATTC] = 51404 6274 0 *57678*

62 [ATTG] = 47417 10155 0 *57572*

63 [ATTT] = 117256 0 25278 *91978*

64 [CAAA] = 79363 0 21685 *57678*

65 [CAAC] = 32127 4043 0 *36170*

66 [CAAG] = 42815 0 6712 *36103*

67 [CAAT] = 47654 10024 0 *57678*

68 [CACA] = 55620 0 19450 *36170*

69 [CACC] = 33151 0 10469 *22682*

70 [CACG] = 7179 15461 0 *22640*

71 [CACT] = 45928 0 9758 *36170*

72 [CAGA] = 56564 0 20461 *36103*

73 [CAGC] = 41329 0 18689 *22640*

74 [CAGG] = 48062 0 25464 *22598*

75 [CAGT] = 45195 0 9092 *36103*

76 [CATA] = 46917 10761 0 *57678*

77 [CATC] = 35989 181 0 *36170*

78 [CATG] = 48113 0 12010 *36103*

79 [CATT] = 65381 0 7703 *57678*

80 [CCAA] = 45500 0 9330 *36170*

81 [CCAC] = 35934 0 13252 *22682*

82 [CCAG] = 48737 0 26097 *22640*

83 [CCAT] = 44965 0 8795 *36170*

84 [CCCA] = 46621 0 23939 *22682*

85 [CCCC] = 25223 0 10999 *14224*

86 [CCCG] = 6354 7843 0 *14197*

87 [CCCT] = 35270 0 12588 *22682*

88 [CCGA] = 4555 18085 0 *22640*

89 [CCGC] = 4965 9232 0 *14197*

90 [CCGG] = 5318 8853 0 *14171*

91 [CCGT] = 4858 17782 0 *22640*

92 [CCTA] = 30469 5701 0 *36170*

93 [CCTC] = 41512 0 18830 *22682*

94 [CCTG] = 48098 0 25458 *22640*

95 [CCTT] = 47006 0 10836 *36170*

96 [CGAA] = 4840 31263 0 *36103*

97 [CGAC] = 2618 20022 0 *22640*

98 [CGAG] = 6200 16398 0 *22598*

99 [CGAT] = 4553 31550 0 *36103*

100 [CGCA] = 4452 18188 0 *22640*

101 [CGCC] = 6407 7790 0 *14197*

102 [CGCG] = 1565 12606 0 *14171*

103 [CGCT] = 4517 18123 0 *22640*

104 [CGGA] = 4428 18170 0 *22598*

105 [CGGC] = 4852 9319 0 *14171*

106 [CGGG] = 6324 7821 0 *14145*

107 [CGGT] = 3933 18665 0 *22598*

108 [CGTA] = 4245 31858 0 *36103*

109 [CGTC] = 4037 18603 0 *22640*

110 [CGTG] = 7351 15247 0 *22598*

111 [CGTT] = 5433 30670 0 *36103*

112 [CTAA] = 43131 14547 0 *57678*

113 [CTAC] = 27535 8635 0 *36170*

114 [CTAG] = 29209 6894 0 *36103*

115 [CTAT] = 41542 16136 0 *57678*

116 [CTCA] = 52774 0 16604 *36170*

117 [CTCC] = 42889 0 20207 *22682*

118 [CTCG] = 6080 16560 0 *22640*

119 [CTCT] = 55831 0 19661 *36170*

120 [CTGA] = 50215 0 14112 *36103*

121 [CTGC] = 39849 0 17209 *22640*

122 [CTGG] = 48277 0 25679 *22598*

123 [CTGT] = 52140 0 16037 *36103*

124 [CTTA] = 41672 16006 0 *57678*

125 [CTTC] = 47446 0 11276 *36170*

126 [CTTG] = 42909 0 6806 *36103*

127 [CTTT] = 79790 0 22111 *57679*

128 [GAAA] = 82388 0 24817 *57571*

129 [GAAC] = 30267 5836 0 *36103*

130 [GAAG] = 47142 0 11106 *36036*

131 [GAAT] = 51502 6070 0 *57572*

132 [GACA] = 37677 0 1574 *36103*

133 [GACC] = 19607 3033 0 *22640*

134 [GACG] = 3864 18734 0 *22598*

135 [GACT] = 30747 5356 0 *36103*

136 [GAGA] = 54787 0 18751 *36036*

137 [GAGC] = 26835 0 4237 *22598*

138 [GAGG] = 41002 0 18446 *22556*

139 [GAGT] = 33589 2447 0 *36036*

140 [GATA] = 36672 20900 0 *57572*

141 [GATC] = 24331 11772 0 *36103*

142 [GATG] = 35921 115 0 *36036*

143 [GATT] = 44264 13308 0 *57572*

144 [GCAA] = 39578 0 3475 *36103*

145 [GCAC] = 25373 0 2733 *22640*

146 [GCAG] = 39433 0 16835 *22598*

147 [GCAT] = 34728 1375 0 *36103*

148 [GCCA] = 36945 0 14305 *22640*

149 [GCCC] = 22184 0 7987 *14197*

150 [GCCG] = 4720 9451 0 *14171*

151 [GCCT] = 38291 0 15651 *22640*

152 [GCGA] = 3996 18602 0 *22598*

153 [GCGC] = 4097 10074 0 *14171*

154 [GCGG] = 4920 9225 0 *14145*

155 [GCGT] = 4322 18276 0 *22598*

156 [GCTA] = 27903 8200 0 *36103*

157 [GCTC] = 26921 0 4281 *22640*

158 [GCTG] = 41554 0 18956 *22598*

159 [GCTT] = 37492 0 1389 *36103*

160 [GGAA] = 51638 0 15602 *36036*

161 [GGAC] = 20083 2515 0 *22598*

162 [GGAG] = 42961 0 20405 *22556*

163 [GGAT] = 33060 2976 0 *36036*

164 [GGCA] = 37084 0 14486 *22598*

165 [GGCC] = 23339 0 9168 *14171*

166 [GGCG] = 6415 7730 0 *14145*

167 [GGCT] = 35520 0 12922 *22598*

168 [GGGA] = 38931 0 16375 *22556*

169 [GGGC] = 22252 0 8107 *14145*

170 [GGGG] = 25116 0 10997 *14119*

171 [GGGT] = 26461 0 3905 *22556*

172 [GGTA] = 26299 9737 0 *36036*

173 [GGTC] = 19789 2809 0 *22598*

174 [GGTG] = 33347 0 10791 *22556*

175 [GGTT] = 32735 3301 0 *36036*

176 [GTAA] = 39612 17960 0 *57572*

177 [GTAC] = 19306 16797 0 *36103*

178 [GTAG] = 28035 8001 0 *36036*

179 [GTAT] = 38647 18925 0 *57572*

180 [GTCA] = 31986 4117 0 *36103*

181 [GTCC] = 20194 2446 0 *22640*

182 [GTCG] = 2612 19986 0 *22598*

183 [GTCT] = 37235 0 1132 *36103*

184 [GTGA] = 41003 0 4967 *36036*

185 [GTGC] = 25002 0 2404 *22598*

186 [GTGG] = 36220 0 13664 *22556*

187 [GTGT] = 39178 0 3142 *36036*

188 [GTTA] = 33122 24450 0 *57572*

189 [GTTC] = 30685 5418 0 *36103*

190 [GTTG] = 32094 3942 0 *36036*

191 [GTTT] = 61630 0 4058 *57572*

192 [TAAA] = 96295 0 4318 *91977*

193 [TAAC] = 32788 24890 0 *57678*

194 [TAAG] = 41940 15632 0 *57572*

195 [TAAT] = 68926 23051 0 *91977*

196 [TACA] = 52499 5179 0 *57678*

197 [TACC] = 26011 10159 0 *36170*

198 [TACG] = 4285 31818 0 *36103*

199 [TACT] = 42863 14815 0 *57678*

200 [TAGA] = 46015 11557 0 *57572*

201 [TAGC] = 27648 8455 0 *36103*

202 [TAGG] = 30346 5690 0 *36036*

203 [TAGT] = 37514 20058 0 *57572*

204 [TATA] = 71110 20867 0 *91977*

205 [TATC] = 36991 20687 0 *57678*

206 [TATG] = 46579 10993 0 *57572*

207 [TATT] = 88109 3869 0 *91978*

208 [TCAA] = 55867 1811 0 *57678*

209 [TCAC] = 40668 0 4498 *36170*

210 [TCAG] = 50537 0 14434 *36103*

211 [TCAT] = 56858 820 0 *57678*

212 [TCCA] = 49110 0 12940 *36170*

213 [TCCC] = 39054 0 16372 *22682*

214 [TCCG] = 4520 18120 0 *22640*

215 [TCCT] = 54738 0 18568 *36170*

216 [TCGA] = 4493 31610 0 *36103*

217 [TCGC] = 4023 18617 0 *22640*

218 [TCGG] = 4621 17977 0 *22598*

219 [TCGT] = 5058 31045 0 *36103*

220 [TCTA] = 46049 11629 0 *57678*

221 [TCTC] = 55454 0 19284 *36170*

222 [TCTG] = 56439 0 20336 *36103*

223 [TCTT] = 74027 0 16348 *57679*

224 [TGAA] = 68470 0 10898 *57572*

225 [TGAC] = 31575 4528 0 *36103*

226 [TGAG] = 52522 0 16486 *36036*

227 [TGAT] = 50570 7002 0 *57572*

228 [TGCA] = 48917 0 12814 *36103*

229 [TGCC] = 37185 0 14545 *22640*

230 [TGCG] = 4415 18183 0 *22598*

231 [TGCT] = 49589 0 13486 *36103*

232 [TGGA] = 48758 0 12722 *36036*

233 [TGGC] = 36807 0 14209 *22598*

234 [TGGG] = 46031 0 23475 *22556*

235 [TGGT] = 42586 0 6550 *36036*

236 [TGTA] = 52586 4986 0 *57572*

237 [TGTC] = 37682 0 1579 *36103*

238 [TGTG] = 55631 0 19595 *36036*

239 [TGTT] = 67303 0 9731 *57572*

240 [TTAA] = 78181 13796 0 *91977*

241 [TTAC] = 39932 17746 0 *57678*

242 [TTAG] = 42944 14628 0 *57572*

243 [TTAT] = 78553 13425 0 *91978*

244 [TTCA] = 69125 0 11447 *57678*

245 [TTCC] = 51528 0 15358 *36170*

246 [TTCG] = 4914 31189 0 *36103*

247 [TTCT] = 85861 0 28182 *57679*

248 [TTGA] = 55806 1766 0 *57572*

249 [TTGC] = 39335 0 3232 *36103*

250 [TTGG] = 45168 0 9132 *36036*

251 [TTGT] = 61447 0 3875 *57572*

252 [TTTA] = 95607 0 3629 *91978*

253 [TTTC] = 82318 0 24639 *57679*

254 [TTTG] = 80201 0 22629 *57572*

255 [TTTT] = 170849 0 78871 *91978*

 

Total Nucleotides = 10299843

Max Value Below Predicted = 31858

Max Value Above Predicted = 79818

 

Before commenting on these numbers, let us look at some computer simulations so we have something to compare them to.

 

 

Computer Simulations of Nucleotides

 

Because of the massive drain on computer power caused by floating point operations, I could only run 70,000 simulations.

 

The 70,000 simulations were not run at one time. For example, 25,000 of the 70,000 simulations were run at one time. In each of the 25,000 simulations (one of the blocks to make up the 70,000 simulations) represented in the below chart, a sequence of operations was performed:

1) In each simulation 10,299,843 nucleotides were chosen, with bias (i.e. taking into account the real distribution of nucleotides).

2) A histogram for each simulation was made for the 256 different possible permutations of 4 nucleotides (e.g. AAAA, AAAC, AAAG, etc.).

3) Thus, there were 25,000 different histograms of 4 different permutations of nucleotides.

4) The program went through those 25,000 histograms and found the minimum and maximum values for each permutation in each simulation.

 

Let us look at the chart of 25,000 simulations:

 

25,000 Simulations of DNA, With Bias

Table 6:

 

Column (A) is the sequence of 4 nucleotides

Column (B) is the MINIMUM times the sequence occurred among 25,000 simulations

Column (C) is the MAXIMUM times the sequence occurred among 25,000 simulations

Column (D) is Column (C) minus Column (B)

Column (E) is the number of predicted occurrences

 

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

GAP

[AAAA] = 90882 93244 2362 *91977*

[AAAC] = 56733 58597 1864 *57678*

[AAAG] = 56524 58483 1959 *57571*

[AAAT] = 90841 93193 2352 *91977*

[AACA] = 56758 58683 1925 *57678*

[AACC] = 35356 36979 1623 *36170*

[AACG] = 35363 36827 1464 *36103*

[AACT] = 56795 58875 2080 *57678*

[AAGA] = 56595 58640 2045 *57571*

[AAGC] = 35353 36831 1478 *36103*

[AAGG] = 35172 36800 1628 *36036*

[AAGT] = 56591 58470 1879 *57572*

[AATA] = 90629 93216 2587 *91977*

[AATC] = 56723 58763 2040 *57678*

[AATG] = 56534 58562 2028 *57572*

[AATT] = 90661 93543 2882 *91977* **

[ACAA] = 56617 58561 1944 *57678*

[ACAC] = 35464 36979 1515 *36170*

[ACAG] = 35312 36817 1505 *36103*

[ACAT] = 56621 58690 2069 *57678*

[ACCA] = 35458 36979 1521 *36170*

[ACCC] = 22095 23307 1212 *22682*

[ACCG] = 22046 23193 1147 *22640*

[ACCT] = 35406 36963 1557 *36170*

[ACGA] = 35414 36948 1534 *36103*

[ACGC] = 22060 23297 1237 *22640*

[ACGG] = 21982 23232 1250 *22598*

[ACGT] = 35332 36835 1503 *36103*

[ACTA] = 56672 58640 1968 *57678*

[ACTC] = 35420 36929 1509 *36170*

[ACTG] = 35368 36846 1478 *36103*

[ACTT] = 56660 58576 1916 *57678*

[AGAA] = 56627 58573 1946 *57571*

[AGAC] = 35401 36904 1503 *36103*

[AGAG] = 35301 36735 1434 *36036*

[AGAT] = 56590 58492 1902 *57572*

[AGCA] = 35415 36845 1430 *36103*

[AGCC] = 22023 23302 1279 *22640*

[AGCG] = 22061 23177 1116 *22598*

[AGCT] = 35235 36887 1652 *36103*

[AGGA] = 35313 36958 1645 *36036*

[AGGC] = 21978 23174 1196 *22598*

[AGGG] = 21942 23117 1175 *22556*

[AGGT] = 35235 36782 1547 *36036*

[AGTA] = 56472 58606 2134 *57572*

[AGTC] = 35319 37018 1699 *36103*

[AGTG] = 35313 36811 1498 *36036*

[AGTT] = 56630 58588 1958 *57572*

[ATAA] = 90732 93060 2328 *91977*

[ATAC] = 56785 58660 1875 *57678*

[ATAG] = 56524 58505 1981 *57572*

[ATAT] = 90786 93343 2557 *91977*

[ATCA] = 56759 58618 1859 *57678*

[ATCC] = 35327 36995 1668 *36170*

[ATCG] = 35356 36899 1543 *36103*

[ATCT] = 56651 58700 2049 *57678*

[ATGA] = 56630 58504 1874 *57572*

[ATGC] = 35364 36796 1432 *36103*

[ATGG] = 35233 36862 1629 *36036*

[ATGT] = 56641 58501 1860 *57572*

[ATTA] = 90900 93061 2161 *91977*

[ATTC] = 56549 58543 1994 *57678*

[ATTG] = 56618 58525 1907 *57572*

[ATTT] = 90784 93180 2396 *91978*

[CAAA] = 56659 58650 1991 *57678*

[CAAC] = 35345 36958 1613 *36170*

[CAAG] = 35342 36927 1585 *36103*

[CAAT] = 56777 58562 1785 *57678*

[CACA] = 35421 36908 1487 *36170*

[CACC] = 21967 23302 1335 *22682*

[CACG] = 21956 23264 1308 *22640*

[CACT] = 35453 36908 1455 *36170*

[CAGA] = 35351 36801 1450 *36103*

[CAGC] = 22066 23191 1125 *22640*

[CAGG] = 22014 23182 1168 *22598*

[CAGT] = 35425 36965 1540 *36103*

[CATA] = 56729 58636 1907 *57678*

[CATC] = 35346 37096 1750 *36170*

[CATG] = 35317 36816 1499 *36103*

[CATT] = 56725 58674 1949 *57678*

[CCAA] = 35408 37015 1607 *36170*

[CCAC] = 22086 23301 1215 *22682*

[CCAG] = 22060 23298 1238 *22640*

[CCAT] = 35402 36953 1551 *36170*

[CCCA] = 21956 23295 1339 *22682*

[CCCC] = 13774 14745 971 *14224*

[CCCG] = 13699 14721 1022 *14197*

[CCCT] = 22060 23260 1200 *22682*

[CCGA] = 21999 23270 1271 *22640*

[CCGC] = 13695 14673 978 *14197*

[CCGG] = 13705 14713 1008 *14171*

[CCGT] = 22052 23186 1134 *22640*

[CCTA] = 35361 36944 1583 *36170*

[CCTC] = 22097 23245 1148 *22682*

[CCTG] = 22061 23268 1207 *22640*

[CCTT] = 35416 36912 1496 *36170*

[CGAA] = 35334 36904 1570 *36103*

[CGAC] = 22089 23227 1138 *22640*

[CGAG] = 22015 23178 1163 *22598*

[CGAT] = 35352 36828 1476 *36103*

[CGCA] = 22053 23291 1238 *22640*

[CGCC] = 13728 14680 952 *14197*

[CGCG] = 13678 14626 948 *14171*

[CGCT] = 21960 23234 1274 *22640*

[CGGA] = 21853 23228 1375 *22598*

[CGGC] = 13666 14712 1046 *14171*

[CGGG] = 13688 14664 976 *14145*

[CGGT] = 21909 23196 1287 *22598*

[CGTA] = 35216 36901 1685 *36103*

[CGTC] = 22094 23246 1152 *22640*

[CGTG] = 22033 23138 1105 *22598*

[CGTT] = 35323 36820 1497 *36103*

[CTAA] = 56682 58637 1955 *57678*

[CTAC] = 35370 36981 1611 *36170*

[CTAG] = 35331 36940 1609 *36103*

[CTAT] = 56717 58771 2054 *57678*

[CTCA] = 35371 36981 1610 *36170*

[CTCC] = 22063 23225 1162 *22682*

[CTCG] = 22058 23224 1166 *22640*

[CTCT] = 35377 36988 1611 *36170*

[CTGA] = 35215 36966 1751 *36103*

[CTGC] = 22048 23182 1134 *22640*

[CTGG] = 21985 23148 1163 *22598*

[CTGT] = 35403 36795 1392 *36103*

[CTTA] = 56584 58651 2067 *57678*

[CTTC] = 35308 37031 1723 *36170*

[CTTG] = 35339 36855 1516 *36103*

[CTTT] = 56702 58623 1921 *57679*

[GAAA] = 56513 58675 2162 *57571*

[GAAC] = 35421 36883 1462 *36103*

[GAAG] = 35246 36742 1496 *36036*

[GAAT] = 56645 58593 1948 *57572*

[GACA] = 35326 36981 1655 *36103*

[GACC] = 22043 23336 1293 *22640*

[GACG] = 21998 23200 1202 *22598*

[GACT] = 35432 36861 1429 *36103*

[GAGA] = 35209 36794 1585 *36036*

[GAGC] = 22032 23202 1170 *22598*

[GAGG] = 21941 23182 1241 *22556*

[GAGT] = 35362 36785 1423 *36036*

[GATA] = 56598 58521 1923 *57572*

[GATC] = 35358 36912 1554 *36103*

[GATG] = 35303 36797 1494 *36036*

[GATT] = 56626 58529 1903 *57572*

[GCAA] = 35429 36884 1455 *36103*

[GCAC] = 22074 23219 1145 *22640*

[GCAG] = 21991 23223 1232 *22598*

[GCAT] = 35306 36882 1576 *36103*

[GCCA] = 21971 23210 1239 *22640*

[GCCC] = 13691 14683 992 *14197*

[GCCG] = 13681 14647 966 *14171*

[GCCT] = 22022 23197 1175 *22640*

[GCGA] = 22023 23189 1166 *22598*

[GCGC] = 13691 14643 952 *14171*

[GCGG] = 13638 14595 957 *14145*

[GCGT] = 21986 23173 1187 *22598*

[GCTA] = 35313 36863 1550 *36103*

[GCTC] = 21991 23247 1256 *22640*

[GCTG] = 22028 23191 1163 *22598*

[GCTT] = 35366 36852 1486 *36103*

[GGAA] = 35308 36820 1512 *36036*

[GGAC] = 21920 23222 1302 *22598*

[GGAG] = 21927 23154 1227 *22556*

[GGAT] = 35273 36840 1567 *36036*

[GGCA] = 21982 23230 1248 *22598*

[GGCC] = 13670 14612 942 *14171*

[GGCG] = 13640 14591 951 *14145*

[GGCT] = 21965 23204 1239 *22598*

[GGGA] = 21925 23260 1335 *22556*

[GGGC] = 13615 14604 989 *14145*

[GGGG] = 13637 14622 985 *14119*

[GGGT] = 21923 23146 1223 *22556*

[GGTA] = 35280 36875 1595 *36036*

[GGTC] = 22027 23206 1179 *22598*

[GGTG] = 21965 23141 1176 *22556*

[GGTT] = 35342 36817 1475 *36036*

[GTAA] = 56733 58699 1966 *57572*

[GTAC] = 35364 36830 1466 *36103*

[GTAG] = 35262 36773 1511 *36036*

[GTAT] = 56657 58586 1929 *57572*

[GTCA] = 35381 36920 1539 *36103*

[GTCC] = 21996 23236 1240 *22640*

[GTCG] = 21965 23257 1292 *22598*

[GTCT] = 35419 36917 1498 *36103*

[GTGA] = 35258 36853 1595 *36036*

[GTGC] = 22006 23238 1232 *22598*

[GTGG] = 21984 23185 1201 *22556*

[GTGT] = 35280 36787 1507 *36036*

[GTTA] = 56631 58535 1904 *57572*

[GTTC] = 35349 36789 1440 *36103*

[GTTG] = 35292 36830 1538 *36036*

[GTTT] = 56640 58584 1944 *57572*

[TAAA] = 90841 93173 2332 *91977*

[TAAC] = 56567 58617 2050 *57678*

[TAAG] = 56663 58504 1841 *57572*

[TAAT] = 90695 93174 2479 *91977*

[TACA] = 56680 58615 1935 *57678*

[TACC] = 35351 36949 1598 *36170*

[TACG] = 35308 36830 1522 *36103*

[TACT] = 56782 58635 1853 *57678*

[TAGA] = 56623 58494 1871 *57572*

[TAGC] = 35371 36881 1510 *36103*

[TAGG] = 35324 36776 1452 *36036*

[TAGT] = 56627 58563 1936 *57572*

[TATA] = 90660 93176 2516 *91977*

[TATC] = 56635 58652 2017 *57678*

[TATG] = 56606 58555 1949 *57572*

[TATT] = 90824 93273 2449 *91978*

[TCAA] = 56756 58714 1958 *57678*

[TCAC] = 35439 36980 1541 *36170*

[TCAG] = 35261 36983 1722 *36103*

[TCAT] = 56756 58598 1842 *57678*

[TCCA] = 35436 37002 1566 *36170*

[TCCC] = 22116 23304 1188 *22682*

[TCCG] = 22050 23229 1179 *22640*

[TCCT] = 35413 36881 1468 *36170*

[TCGA] = 35362 36857 1495 *36103*

[TCGC] = 21980 23297 1317 *22640*

[TCGG] = 22028 23247 1219 *22598*

[TCGT] = 35292 36789 1497 *36103*

[TCTA] = 56725 58643 1918 *57678*

[TCTC] = 35350 36885 1535 *36170*

[TCTG] = 35248 37083 1835 *36103*

[TCTT] = 56703 58616 1913 *57679*

[TGAA] = 56648 58450 1802 *57572*

[TGAC] = 35286 36957 1671 *36103*

[TGAG] = 35307 36800 1493 *36036*

[TGAT] = 56672 58606 1934 *57572*

[TGCA] = 35252 36865 1613 *36103*

[TGCC] = 22072 23262 1190 *22640*

[TGCG] = 21925 23197 1272 *22598*

[TGCT] = 35343 36860 1517 *36103*

[TGGA] = 35217 36782 1565 *36036*

[TGGC] = 22035 23199 1164 *22598*

[TGGG] = 21865 23108 1243 *22556*

[TGGT] = 35230 36807 1577 *36036*

[TGTA] = 56611 58431 1820 *57572*

[TGTC] = 35169 36864 1695 *36103*

[TGTG] = 35274 36801 1527 *36036*

[TGTT] = 56617 58480 1863 *57572*

[TTAA] = 90805 93185 2380 *91977*

[TTAC] = 56841 58612 1771 *57678*

[TTAG] = 56632 58566 1934 *57572*

[TTAT] = 90703 93136 2433 *91978*

[TTCA] = 56809 58647 1838 *57678*

[TTCC] = 35422 36921 1499 *36170*

[TTCG] = 35353 36899 1546 *36103*

[TTCT] = 56772 58553 1781 *57679*

[TTGA] = 56626 58474 1848 *57572*

[TTGC] = 35320 36993 1673 *36103*

[TTGG] = 35334 36812 1478 *36036*

[TTGT] = 56665 58599 1934 *57572*

[TTTA] = 90838 93193 2355 *91978*

[TTTC] = 56656 58648 1992 *57679*

[TTTG] = 56558 58632 2074 *57572*

[TTTT] = 90761 93362 2601 *91978*

 

Maximum Gap (MAX minus MIN) = 2882 (AATT)

Maximum Gap Below Pred. = 1566 (Calc Not Shown)

Maximum Gap Above Pred. = 1348 (Calc Not Shown)

 

The predicted value was always between the minimum value and the maximum value for each permutation (i.e. each row).

 

While the maximum difference between the low and high simulation, for all permutations, was 2,882; the maximum gap below the predicted value was 1,566 and the maximum gap above the predicted value was 1,348.

 

Let us compare these two numbers with what we saw in the real DNA segment:

 

Using real DNA, the maximum below predicted, considering all permutations, was 31,858. The simulations generated a maximum below predicted of 1,566, meaning only 4.92% of the real DNA. This, in spite of the fact that 70,000 simulations were run and the chart above was for the group of 25,000 simulations which had the highest gaps.

 

Using real DNA, the maximum above predicted, considering all permutations, was 79,818. The simulations generated a maximum of 1,348, or only 1.69% of the difference using real DNA.

 

We see again that randomness cannot even come close to creating intelligence or information. This is because when using strings of nucleotides, randomness sticks far too close to predicted values, even when considering bias.

 

The fact remains that random numbers generate such a small range of values for each permutation histogram, compared to predicted values, a person can safely conclude that it is impossible for randomly generated nucleotides (in nature, per neo-Darwinism) to generate any type of information or intelligence.

 

In fact, this is what has happened in the real world. Billions of attempts to create new genetic information, via random mutations, have been attempted in the real world. No one has ever proven that any new genetic information was generated by these randomly generated mutations. (see the Sanford book)

 

The rare beneficial mutations mentioned in the Sanford book were examples of a loss of genetic information which only coincidentally led to some environmental benefit.

 

You cannot create intelligence even if you use bias in your selection of nucleotides!!

 

 

A Higher Viewpoint

 

Sometimes a picture is worth a thousand words. Let us look at the histogram of real human DNA, which was mathematically described above:

 

 

 

 

As can be seen, there are many very small numbers, such as those bars which are very short and can barely be seen at the bottom of the chart. There are also some very tall bars and many medium-length bars. What this graph shows is a lot of variety from the small numbers, to the medium numbers, to the very tall numbers. Some sequences of nucleotides are rarely seen and others are frequently seen. The histogram represents a "pattern of intelligence."

 

Now let us look at a representative histogram of a randomly generated DNA, using unbiased data. This is not the same randomly generated DNA mathematically described above, but all randomly generated unbiased DNA look basically the same:

 

 

 

 

Where is the variety in this second picture?? There is none. Randomness is very predictable when looking at large volumes of data.

 

Can the patterns of randomness, shown in this second graph, ever accidentally generate the patterns of intelligence in the first graph, which represented real human DNA? No.

 

 

Statistics

 

The concept of "standard deviation" is a mathematical or statistical way to represent variety in a bar chart. For example, the "standard deviation" in the real DNA chart above would be expected to be much, much higher than in a random chart because its bars have a much greater variety.

 

In fact, the histogram data of real DNA is as follows:

Minimum = 1,565

Maximum = 171,795

Standard Deviation = 25,505

 

This value of the standard deviation, more than 25,000, represents a very wide variety of values in the histogram. This is what we see visually in the above histogram of real DNA.

 

By comparison, I ran 10,000 computer simulations of randomly generated nucleotides of the same size as the real human DNA from chromosome 5. In each simulation I kept track of the standard deviation. Here is a summary of these 10,000 standard deviations:

 

Minimum Standard Deviation = 169.46

Maximum Standard Deviation = 236.15

 

Neither of these numbers are above 1% of the standard deviation (i.e. variety) of the real human DNA, meaning none of the 10,000 computer simulations had a standard deviation of 1% or more of the standard deviation using real human DNA.

 

I also ran a standard deviation of the 10,000 standard deviations just mentioned, to see how much variety there was among the standard deviations. Here is that number:

 

Standard Deviation of Standard Deviations = 8.94

 

This, actually, is to be expected given the minimum and maximum above. All of this indicates that if we had run millions of randomly generated DNA strands that our variety of standard deviations would never get anywhere near the standard deviation of real human DNA of over 25,000!!

 

This means it is impossible to randomly generate real human DNA (or the real DNA of any living species) by using random mutations of nucleotides. This demonstrates that patterns of randomness will ever yield patterns of intelligence.

 

Yet, evolution claimed that patterns of randomness created patterns of intelligence millions of times within the short timeframe of a billion years. It is nonsense.

 

 

Adding Bias

 

What if we add bias when choosing nucleotides? If we add bias we will definitely get very high standard deviations.

 

But in this case the standard deviation doesn't mean anything because it we plotted the "predicted" values we would also get a high standard deviation.

 

What you need to do is plot the difference between the biased histogram and the biased predicted values. The difference between these two numbers will yield very small standard deviations. In other words, the biased data is really nothing more than a slight deviation from the predicted value.

 

But real human DNA does not follow the predicted values. In short, adding bias will not add intelligence even though the pure standard deviation will be higher.

 

 

Summary

 

The point to this chapter is simple: patterns of randomness can never generate patterns of intelligence or information. Never, never, never, never. There is no field in science which would dispute this fact, not even high speed computer simulations would challenge this fact.

 

For example, if the theory of evolution were true, and randomness could create intelligence, all corporations could fire their computer programmers and replace them with randomly generated computer programs which "evolve," step-by-step, with selection, into very large, highly intricate and sophisticated computer programs.

 

Actually, "selection" would never come into play because none of the randomly generated computer programs would ever do anything useful, thus there would be nothing to "select" (i.e. nothing was "alive," using evolution terminology).

 

Computers are many, many trillions of times faster than evolution would be in the real world, so new highly sophisticated computer programs could be written fairly quickly by computerizing the model of evolution. But no corporation would do such a foolish thing because randomness cannot create intelligence.

 

The conclusion is that it is impossible to generate information and intelligence from randomly generated nucleotides. Neo-Darwinism is a scientifically false concept. There will never, never be a new gene complex generated by random mutations of nucleotides. It is impossible!! Yet about 200 million gene complexes randomly formed in about 1 billion years according to the theory of evolution. This is mathematical nonsense.

 

In this chapter we are actually explaining why the impossible probabilities; incurred by the concept of permutations of nucleotides; are so impossible. We are now saying that because of the way random numbers or random permutations are chosen, it is impossible for a set of randomly generated nucleotides to generate information and the massive, massive intelligence of human DNA!!

 

The concept of "permutations of nucleotides" and the concept of "randomly generated numbers" tell the same story - the theory of neo-Darwinism is mathematically impossible. Now you know why!!

 

When these concepts are coupled with the scientific fact of genetic entropy, and the many other problems the theory of evolution faces, the reader can understand why the theory of evolution is scientific nonsense.