Introduction to the Mathematics of Evolution
On the Complexity of Organs
To get a better perspective of the complexity of DNA, and the problems the theory of evolution faces because of the complexity of DNA, let us consider a hypothetical situation.
Suppose that several close relatives of a certain scientist died due to a disease called cirrhosis of the liver. It is a disease common among heavy drinkers of alcoholic beverages. Drinking large amounts of alcohol can destroy the liver because the liver is overburdened with processing and filtering out the toxins from the alcohol. The toxins are mainly mycotoxins, which are the waste products of microbes, such as yeast. Alcohol is largely made of mycotoxins.
Suppose this scientist discovers exactly which toxins cause cirrhosis of the liver. Further suppose this scientist decides to design a new organ for the body that is specifically designed to safely filter out these toxins before they get to the liver.
The new organ will be called the "pre-liver."
The Next Generation
The first problem is that the scientist can't help his living relatives. He can only help the "next generation" of relatives who have not yet been conceived.
You might wonder why he can't help his existing relatives.
The reason is that a new organ of the body requires massive changes to the circulatory system, nervous system, brain signals, lymph system, etc. You cannot make these changes to a living person. The bodies of living people have already had their body manufactured by their DNA; thus changing their DNA will not help them. The design of their body was controlled during the morphing of their embryo.
The generation of the scientist was born without a pre-liver, because the morphing of their embryo did not create it.
The sequence to create a pre-liver for the next generation is this:
First, the instructions for creating the new organ (i.e. the pre-liver) must be made to the DNA of living people, a male and a female. Actually the changes must be made to their germ cells, which combine to create a fertilized egg.
Second, this couple must mate so that their modified DNA exists in a newly fertilized egg.
Third, during the morphing of the embryo, all of the new instructions in DNA are followed and the new organ can be made, the new circulatory system can be made, the new nervous system can be made, the new programming in the brain can be made, etc.
Fourth, when the new baby is born, after the morphing of the embryo, the new baby will have the new pre-liver and all of the other changes necessary for the new pre-liver to function.
Thus, when the scientist designs the DNA to build this new pre-liver, the DNA changes he makes must be made to the egg of a living woman and the sperm of a living man so that the fertilized egg they create will contain the proper DNA to create the pre-liver, and many other new things, during the morphing of the embryo.
All organs are made during the morphing of the embryo. Thus, a new organ can only be made during the morphing of the embryo. That is why he cannot help his existing relatives.
And the only place the morphing of the embryo algorithm in DNA can be changed, to create the new pre-liver, is in the male DNA and female DNA of an existing species. Of course their DNA also has to be changed for the new gene complexes, etc., necessary to create the new types of cells, new biological structure, etc., of the new pre-liver.
A Problem for the Theory of Evolution
What has been said so far presents a major, major problem for the theory of evolution.
What all of this means is that for a proposed new species to have a better organ, for example, massive changes must be made to the morphing of the embryo algorithm of a male and female of their parent species!!
Thus, when "evolution" gets ready to create a new organ or new critical system, such as the semi-circular canals of a species which wants to convert from walking on four legs to walking on two legs, the only way on the planet Earth to create this new organ or new system is to redesign the morphing of the embryo algorithm in both a male and female. Only then can these systems show up in a new species.
Of course, other changes must be made to the DNA, such as genes, which are needed for the proteins, the rest of the gene complexes, etc., but the morphing of the embryo is where a massive amount of intelligence is needed to create the new organ.
The morphing of the embryo algorithm, which is what controls the morphing of the embryo, is the only possible place that the new organ can be created!! And the changes must occur in the germ cells of a male and female of the parent species. If the changes occur in the non-germ cells, the changes will not appear in the new species.
Not only is the morphing of the embryo algorithms the most complex computer program on the planet earth, but it is the most vulnerable to the slightest errors. There is zero margin of error in the nucleotides which control the morphing of the embryo.
This concept alone totally obliterates the theory of evolution.
But let us get back to our scientist who is trying to build the pre-liver.
Back to the Scientist
This scientist not only has to design hundreds of new proteins for the new types of cells in the pre-liver, he must also design changes to the circulatory system, the nervous system, the brain programming, the lymph system, the biological structure (i.e. the way the physical parts of the body are linked together), etc.
And all of this must be built into the morphing of the embryo algorithm in the DNA of both the male and female.
This new organ will be designed to allow the next generation of his relatives to drink large volumes of alcohol, without worrying about getting cirrhoses of the liver. (Of course, a logical person would conclude it would be much simpler for him to convince his relatives to quit drinking.)
Obviously, this new organ must be a small chemical factory that will safely rid the body of dangerous mycotoxins before they get to the liver. Thus, this new organ will have to be placed in the body (during the morphing of the embryo) where it can filter out the toxins that are killing his relatives, before the toxins get to the liver. That is why it is called a “pre-liver;” it processes chemicals out of the bloodstream before they can get to the liver.
Furthermore, let us assume the “pre-liver” is to be placed right next to the liver in such a way that the toxins are filtered out just before they get to the liver.
Organs are composed of cells (some of which may be unique types of cells for that organ and that species) and the rest of the biological structure of the organ (which includes minerals and a lot of other things). Because all of this is designed by the DNA, and built during the morphing of the embryo, his first problem is redesigning human DNA.
He has to redesign the DNA to create hundreds of new proteins, needed by the pre-liver, new types of cells needed in the pre-liver, new biological structure, changes to the circulatory system, changes to the nervous system and brain to control the pre-liver and fix small damage to the pre-liver, etc. And above all, the morphing of the embryo algorithms must be able to integrate all of these changes to DNA at just the right time and in just the right places.
The changes must be made in both the male and female and they must mate.
Do you see the absurdity of scientists who claim that the morphing of the embryo algorithms are "simple" and only consist of a few nucleotides??!!
In fact, it is highly likely that much of the morphing of the embryo algorithms are in the gene complexes. For example, people with vastly different shaped noses have exactly the same DNA, except in their gene complexes. Thus, at least part of the morphing of the embryo algorithms must be in the gene complexes. This makes the gene complexes more sensitive to design flaws than people may think.
This means that parts of the morphing of the embryo algorithms are scattered throughout the DNA. This makes it difficult to track down all the nucleotides involved in the morphing of the embryo and it makes the accuracy of the DNA even more important (i.e. there is not as much "flexibility" in nucleotide sequences as some might think).
A thinking person would totally dismiss the theory of evolution simply based on the complexity of DNA and how critical pieces of DNA, which share a common function, are scattered throughout the DNA. DNA has to be designed by beings (or a Being) far, far more intelligent than we humans. Yet as this complexity is unraveled the theory of evolution always gets the credit.
Let's get back to the scientist.
So how would this scientist go about re-designing a person’s DNA so the new DNA will create not only the liver, but also the pre-liver?
Let's go into this in more detail.
First, he must figure out which proteins are needed to make the pre-liver so that the new types of cells in the new pre-liver can become miniature chemical factories. The new cells in the pre-liver must filter out the dangerous toxins. This scientist will quickly find out he needs to design many very complex three-dimensional proteins (which are not already made by the body) to perform the task of filtering out mycotoxins and other toxins before they get to the liver.
These very complex three-dimensional proteins must not only fold in such a way that they will fit together, but the right amino acids must be in the right places so the proteins will bind together to create the three-dimensional proteins.
Of course, a great amount of signaling will be needed to control the order and timing of when new proteins will be made from the DNA. This includes new types of signaling proteins which will be inside the new types of cells. These proteins in the new types of cells also need to be placed into the right location, at the right time, so the protein structures can be built.
Of course, if there are any new proteins needed by the pre-liver, there must be new genes placed in the DNA. He must design these genes so that each gene creates an average of 10 proteins and the gene knows exactly which of the proteins to make at just the right time (this means he will have to design highly sophisticated introns on the DNA). But the exons must be ordered so that sequential subsets of the exons can create the 10 new proteins (this is more complex than it sounds).
Also, new types of cells, not already in the body, must be designed which will capture the dangerous mycotoxins and other toxins and pull them into the new types of cells so the proteins and other chemicals inside the new types of cells can neutralize them. Thus, new types of receptors, and perhaps cell membrane ports, need to be designed.
Thus, let us say he must design 6 new types of cells with special carbohydrates and/or enzymes on their surface which will grab the various types of toxins and allow the cells to pull them in through protein ports built into the bilipid cell walls.
Plus other enzymes and carbohydrates must also be part of the biological structure so that cells can stick together to create biological structure with other organs.
This means changes to the external enzymes and carbohydrates of other parts of the body (such as the liver) must also be changed so the liver can bind to the new pre-liver. Thus he must change the design of many parts of the body which are not part of the pre-liver itself. In other words, an enormous amount of changes to cells which are not part of the pre-liver must be modified. All of these changes must be designed into the morphing of the embryo algorithm in the DNA.
During the morphing of the embryo, at some point, the first of each type of new cell must be a converted from an undifferentiated cell. The scientist has to figure out when the first new instance of each new type of cell will be created and how it will be created from an undifferentiated cell. He must also figure out how many of each new type of cell will need to be made, and where they are to be placed in the biological structure of the pre-liver.
He must figure out a way for nutrients and liquids to get inside of the new types of cells. Thus, he must change the morphing of the embryo so the circulatory system feeds the new types of cells. Certain chemicals must also get inside the new types of cells to neutralize the mycotoxins. They must come from the mother. All chemicals needed for the embryo must come from the mother.
Of course, once these various types of toxins are neutralized there must be a way to get the neutralized toxins out of the cell and then out of the body. There must be protein ports in the cells that allow the neutralized toxins to be placed into the veins and/or lymph system.
Let us suppose he decides that the new pre-liver will need 400 new kinds of proteins, not currently existing in the human body; to facilitate the mechanisms of the 6 new kinds of cells, currently found nowhere in the body.
What must he do next?
Suppose these new gene complexes (which will create the 400 new proteins) have an average length of 20,000 nucleotides (i.e. nucleotide pairs). Because there are 40 new genes (to create the 400 new proteins), he needs to design 800,000 additional nucleotide pairs in a human DNA. It will take him a long time to design these very complex gene complexes which are needed to create very complex 3-dimensional proteins that fit together, bind together and filter out mycotoxins.
These proteins need to have specific shapes and special amino acids in exact locations (as part of each protein) so the proteins can bind together. The binding of proteins to create protein structures is caused by specific types of amino acids, being in the right place in the structure (relative to the folding), so that the proteins will fit together and bind together to make a strong protein structure.
As if that weren't enough, the real problems now begin for this scientist.
Suppose he designs the 40 new gene complexes. Where is he going to place them on the human DNA? To understand this problem, suppose you had an encyclopedia of 5,000 pages and you want to add 40 new articles to this encyclopedia. It is easy for you to figure out where to put them in an encyclopedia, but it is not as easy to decide where to put 40 new gene complexes on DNA.
The human DNA is 3 billion nucleotide pairs long; where is he going to put the new gene complexes? Does it matter? Does the order of the gene complexes matter? No one knows, but most likely it will matter a great deal!!
How about redesigning key sections of non-gene nucleotides; the so-called "junk DNA?" Does that matter? It matters a great deal since there is no known section of DNA which is actually "junk."
But this is just the beginning of his problems. How is the DNA going to create the 6 new types of cells? As an embryo is forming, at what point are these new types of cells produced, and how are they produced? He will have to adjust the DNA (the morphing of the embryo algorithms) so that it knows how to make these 6 new types of cells and be able to create them at just the right time and be able to link them together and place them in just the right place in the body (i.e. the biological structure).
For example, if the morphing of the embryo algorithm was not designed correctly, then the formation of the embryo would not be just right, and the 6 new types of cells may end up being scattered among the fingers of the person, or the brain, or the toes of the person. In other words, the new cells would be worthless.
How is he going to make sure they are placed in exactly the right places, at the right times, so the pre-liver is fully functional and sitting next to the liver by the time the morphing of the embryo is finished?
How will he get chemicals from the mother's body into the morphing baby at just the right time and in just the right places? How will chemicals not in the body of the mother, but needed for the pre-liver, be created?
How will the DNA execute putting together the biological structure of the adjacent organs and other tissue during the morphing of the embryo? The cells not only have to be in the right place at the right time, but they must be designed to form new biological structures with the pre-liver.
Remember that the arteries and veins must be redesigned to get blood to and from every cell of the new pre-liver and the other organs or systems which need to be modified. How is he going to manipulate the DNA so that arteries, veins, nerves, lymph fluid, etc. are correctly attached to the cells of the pre-liver such that all of the cells in the pre-liver are able to function? All this must be done in the DNA of the parents of the first child to have the pre-liver.
To accomplish these things, new arteries, new veins, new lymph channels, new nerves (which must be connected to the spinal cord and then up to the brain), etc. will all be required. These all have to be programmed into the DNA morphing algorithm.
Furthermore, the immune system must recognize these 6 new types of cells as friendly cells, so the immune system does not attack and kill the new types of cells. This, by itself, is a very complex process.
Also, he must reprogram the brain so that it knows the pre-liver is there, and he must reprogram the brain so that it can issue the correct nerve impulses in the correct sequence for the new pre-liver to operate and so the pre-liver structure can repair minor damage. The brain must also send the right signals to the nerves to get rid of the waste products left over after the pre-liver processes the toxins.
In addition, when the DNA is changed significantly, it should also be remembered that every cell in the body (almost) contains exactly the same DNA. Thus, every existing type of cell in the body will have the new DNA segments and must be able to adjust to "find" the right gene complexes and other segments of DNA that they need. This must be taken into account.
Solving all of these problems, and many others, with today’s technology, would be thousands of times worse than having a first grade class try to build a space shuttle.
In fact, the morphing of the embryo algorithm is clearly his most difficult challenge. But, the reprogramming of the brain to accomplish the new and changed tasks of the brain is also an impossible task with today's technology.
The technology does not exist so that we humans can intelligently redesign a human DNA to create the pre-liver. It would involve designing new genes and new proteins, designing new types of cells, and above all redesigning the morphing of the embryo program, etc. to place the pre-liver in exactly the right position in the body, complete with arteries, veins, lymph, immune system, nervous system, new biological structure, etc. etc.
But that is not the end of his problems.
Understanding the Generations
Suppose this person did solve all of these problems. He would have to put this new DNA in both a woman and a man, so that their offspring could have this new organ. Remember, it is only during the morphing of the embryo that a new type of organ can be built.
Adding these 40 new gene complexes by modifying the DNA; would mean there was a new human genome, meaning a new human species. The children and descendants of this man and woman could only mate with each other (i.e. their own brothers and sisters at first). What if this couple only had one child? Or what if they had three children, but all of them were males?
If they had at least one male and one female these two people could mate and create a new child with the new pre-liver. What if these two people didn't like each other (brothers and sisters frequently don't get along even when they are adults)?
The descendants of the first two people to have the pre-liver could never breed (i.e. marry) with regular humans (that's the rest of us) due to the massive differences in their DNA. They could physically mate, but their children would likely be sterile. But even if they were not sterile they would be really messed up in terms of their DNA.
But suppose in 200 years there were thousands of this new species (i.e. a new species of humans), which are all pure descendents of the first two humans with a pre-liver.
Evolutionists would see a "benefit" to the pre-liver and would predict that eventually all human beings who did not have the pre-liver would become extinct.
However, there are many humans who would not need this new organ, the pre-liver. If a person doesn’t drink alcohol, doesn’t take antibiotics, doesn’t eat contaminated grains, etc., they simply don’t need the pre-liver. These people are equally as healthy as the new species of humans, the “pre-liver species” of humans. They are equally likely to survive as the pre-liver species. Evolution would not be able to “favor” the new species when considering that all humans would not need the new pre-liver to survive.
Furthermore, the "rest of us" would far outnumber the pre-liver species, thus it would not be wise for them to try to eliminate the rest of us.
Thus, the world would consist of two distinct species of human beings. We could call them homo sapiens sapiens and homo sapiens preliver. Before getting married the husband and wife would need to know if they are of the same species or they could not have offspring which could breed with anyone.
The point to this discussion is to explain how incomprehensibly complex the technology would need to be to create a single new organ by redesigning the DNA. Scientists today wouldn't have a clue where to begin.
But yet the evolution establishment claims that the many thousands of unique varieties of livers that have existed in different species of the past and present were easy to create by a series of pure accidents!! What utter and complete nonsense!!
And the various types of livers are just one problem for evolution to solve. Different types of hearts, for example, are zero-defect organs.
In the next chapter the discussion on the pre-liver will continue with a discussion of how evolution might create the pre-liver, or any other complex system.